Managing time is vital in filmmaking. Setting yourself and your team an appropriate time scale to do things is something to take much care in. In making Screen Three, I kept this mind and continued to organised my time strategically and so the production process would go with any problems. Lets begin with our first scene. Emailing was key in communicating between myself and Red Lion Theatre which was the location for our shoot. I first contacted Peter Glanfield, an actor at the theatre, who gave me plenty of advice about when to propose a day to shoot. This worked to my advantage in that I could more easily organise with the Chairman, Shirley Moffat. After a series of emails with her I was able to secure not only a date and time, but also an allotted time for when our people could be in the theatre. Because I was weary of problems for the shoot, I asked for an hour more than what I thought I might need to ensure we’d get the film done and the quality of our work wasn’t reduced because of any pressures concerning time. Also, I knew it would take a while to clear up the popcorn and pack away all the equipment (cameras, tripods, lights, projectors etc) and so having this spare time really helped. Whilst all this was being organised, I simultaneously organised with my actors to ensure everyone could make it. I contacted all my actors in a group chat using Facebook to make for a more efficient process. With the second scene which we intended to be shot in our school’s car park, I contacted the Deputy Head Master and after a series of emails, we managed to come to a date that worked for everyone and didn’t interfere with any of the events going on at school. I also arranged this with the school’s caretaker who allowed me to have power whilst on the shoot. Time really wasn’t an issue for our film after it was organised. Taking care in carefully managing time in pre-production can really boost the quality of a piece since it isn’t undermined by time issues. It’s something easy to organise and if you want your film to be successful, time must be addressed right.
In order to create the cinema scene, Jannath and I had the right location, props such as popcorn and popcorn boxes, and the right lighting thanks to a projector. But there’s something missing from this that would sell the scene – sound. A film is supposed to be shown right in front of Peter’s eyes. Recording the audio from the movie on set along with the dialogue would just be impractical, lack quality and undoubtedly ruin continuity. In the editing process it would be a nightmare.
However, I realised the best way to execute shooting the scene would be adding the film soundtrack later on Final Cut Pro. I could have used a soundtrack from my past films or possibly shot an entirely new audio track to place over but in my research I found an opening I could not refuse. George A. Romero’s Night of the Living Dead served to create the old-fashioned atmosphere I wanted for the cinema which would be violently interrupted by and contrast with the youths.
But was this legal? In a short answer: yes. The 1968 film, and its soundtrack, has entered the public domain due to an “error by the distributor”. When the film was released, US copyright law required copyright ownership to be displayed on the actual print of a film (e.g. in the credits). Early prints of Night of the Living Dead had the title Night of the Flesh Eaters, under which was the copyright information. When the title was changed for theatrical release, the distributors apparently failed to include the copyright information – leaving the film uncopyrighted and in the public domain. So it was that the distributors received all the profit from the film, and Romero never made a penny from it. This also explains why there are so many different VHS and DVD recordings (mostly of poor quality) available today. Anyone is allowed to make and distribute a copy.
This all means I am free to use the film as I please and even add it into my own movie, which is exactly what I’ve done in Screen Three. Anyone interested in watching the film, click the link below – it’s legal!
In film theory, genre refers to the method based on similarities in the “narrative elements from which films are constructed”. So let’s look at how this applies to my A2 film, Screen Three.
Films that fall into the drama genre exhibit real life situations with realistic characters, settings and stories and I think my film follows these conventions. Most people have been to the cinema to watch and film and many of those people have come across other members of the audience who have been a nuisance to them in their cinematic experience. In drama, “audience can often relate to the characters” and in this way, the setting and the situation of our short film is real and somewhat familiar to viewers which suggests that it belongs in the drama genre. Similarly, the abusive relationship and hateful conversation between the elderly man and the youths in our film echo the “intense social interaction” that drama films often expose to their audience.
Also, drama also features the portrayal of a journey or some kind of character development which I think lies within the story of Screen Three. At the beginning of the film, our protagonist, Peter, is calm, collected and relaxed in his environment. However, once exposed to the horrors of the youths’ abuse he dramatically changes and becomes a nervous, angry and reckless man who is a danger to those around him. The purpose of a dramatic story line is to “move an audience emotionally” and this character development, which is arguably the focus of the movie, is what achieves this effect upon viewers. “At the heart of drama is conflict” and with the youths’ abuse in mind, this is certainly within our film.
However, within drama films “a form of realisation or happy ending” is often featured. Our film does not conform to this convention with its dramatic, shocking ending but this “happily ever after” idea is conflicted in many dramas. James Cameron’s’ Titanic breaks all the conventions as all does not end happily for the protagonists but has rather a tragic ending.
In order to prepare myself to shooting my film, I captured a series of photographs experimenting with lighting. I confined to the conventions of the film noir genre and directed my subject to pose in a number of ways. The original photos can be seen below.
Below is a range of screenshots I captured whilst editing my pieces. By looking at these you can understand my work in PhotoShop and how I created my final photos.
I also took a range of photos of passing cars in order to form the background for my images.
Here are examples of my final pieces. Experimenting with three-point lighting and my direction of the subject really helped by get a range of “noir” pieces.
When money is put into a film and money is intended to come out of a film, it is very much a business venture. Within business ventures one must understand what they’re getting themselves into and a big part of this is evaluating who is going to consume what you want to make and why? For example, if you spend £1,000,000 in creating a film about model trains it’s unlikely to gain a high amount of revenue due to the niche audience it exclusively appeals to. Cindy Kennaugh, President of ‘On The Mark’, explains target audience profiles (TAP) and makes it clear why they are important in business.
She writes that TAPs are a written and “very detailed appraisal” of your customers’ characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors. TAP information typically falls into two categories: demographics and psychographics.
- Demographics – describe who your customers are. The most frequently used demographic variables include age, gender, occupation, location, marital status, income, education level, and nationality.
- Psychographics – describe why your customers act as they do. For example, you might determine that you have price-sensitive customers who choose the least expensive option, or trend-conscious customers who prefer the newest, most fashionable option, or early adopters who are open to choosing new, unproven options.
Thoroughly addressing and analyzing your film’s target audience helps you and the rest of your fellow filmmakers make better, more consistent customer decisions about how to best market and sell your piece. It also reduces confusion among functional areas through a common business foundation for decision-making. Improve overall marketing focus and communication effectiveness by appealing to the customers directly and understanding what they seek in a film production.
It’s important to figure out why audiences should watch your movie.
In addition to getting inside the head of your audience, your next task is to figure out why these people enjoy your genre. Why would they want to watch your movie? What makes your movie unique from the other, competing movies in existence? How will your movie to appeal to viewing needs of your audience?
So lets think about my A2 film, Screen Three.
Our film is a drama which is thoroughly explained in my blog concerning genre. Before seeing a drama piece, most audience members are expecting a character, probably a protagonist, with whom they can empathise with and follow throughout the story such as Andy Dufresne (Tim Robbins) in The Shawshank Redemption. I recognised this and wanted to achieve this audience gratification within Screen Three. I did so by creating the old man character and directing the audience’s attention upon him. I planned to do this through the cinematography in order to focus much of the film upon him. Conflict is the core of most films, which is an element audiences expect within their viewing experience, particularly in drama. The conflict in Screen Three works to capture audiences and make them more easily empathise with the old man character.
The old man character is interesting since he appeals to a huge range of people. Whilst appealing to the older community who can more easily familiarise with him and his situation, young people can see his vulnerability and the pain he is experiencing throughout the film which may draw them towards this character. In this way our film appeals to a mass audience who can ride with my film’s protagonist as the film unravels. The usual age group for dramas is 15 – 45 this tells me there is a big demographic audience that can be targeted, and this works with this character.
Conventional dramas feature realistic characters in “realistic, familiar” settings. With this in mind, not only does our film appeal to fans of drama, it also appeals to more members of society since the movie theatre is a piece that can empathise with. Many audiences members may find this comforting and something they like about the film which draws them in.
Jason Brubaker is a Hollywood based Independent Motion Picture Producer and an expert in selling a film and therefore has a wealth of knowledge in regards to target audiences. He asks, “why should your audience spend two hours watching your movie?” Answering this question is important in regards to making your movie; what will the audience get from our film and how will the film be crafted to appeal to an audience with this in mind? Well I believe audience members will sit through the piece for the ride. Due to the empathy created for the protagonist through the drama in the piece, they’ll want to know what happens to him. The film is under five minutes long which appeals to young people who’ll flick through the internet looking for short films to watch and also grabs their attention for long enough without them becoming bored, which appeals to many audience members.
No film is made without inspiration, including that from other films. This video details the research process I undertook to make my film and how similar media products such as films, novels and music videos influenced my work .
The video delves into the likes of The Butterfly Effect, A Clockwork Orange, Scream 2 and ‘Movies’ by Alien Ant Farm.
During the first few sessions of the BFI course at Lincoln University, as a group we were lucky enough to be taught by the video production, photography and animation company; Electric Egg. This consisted of Neil Baker and Steven Hatton and amongst the vast knowledge they handed over to us to feed off concerning the origins of cinema, the manipulation of film reel, how to “read” a piece of filmmaking and much more, a book was mentioned to us as valuable learning material. It was stressed that us students got our hands on it and as days passed I began to hear more and more about this book, such as from my Media Studies teacher who also recommended it to me.
The book is “In The Blink Of An Eye” by Walter Murch, which serves as a “perspective on film editing”. Editing is a huge part of making a film. The “puzzle”, which is a word Murch uses to describe the process of piecing together a movie in post-production, can make or break a piece. It can create and stimulate effects whilst being capable of r undermining or destroying others and so the editor, or the editors in some cases, play a vital role in the creation of a film, or any form of moving image for that matter.
Murch’s book works to my advantage through the “wealth of first-hand knowledge” it communicates and every page thrives with information from an experienced, talented and intelligent film editor. Early in the book I realised the significance, the freedom and the true, inevitable effect editing has on the audience. It is not an element of filmmaking to be over-looked and should be taken very seriously and executed with much care and thought.
As Fred Zinneman describes in the book, Murch’s piece acts as “wealth of first-hand knowledge about the mysteries of giving birth to a film”. As a “perspective on editing”, it truly helped me identify the psychological reasoning behind a cut and the vast possibilities a sequence of clips can have if edited together differently. It has significantly influenced me by giving me a deeper understanding of how editing works and the priorities a film should have. Murch’s “Rule Of Six” puts “emotion” at the very top of a filmmaker’s priorities, and this idea is something that has significantly influenced my filmmaking for the better. The second half of the book discusses the change to digital editing that has occurred over the last decade and details Murch’s experience with Final Cut. This serves me nicely since Final Cut Pro is the editing system Jannath and I will be using to assemble our film, Screen Three,